Dictionary of terms
DICTIONARY OF TERMS
Infusion – infusion mashing is the simplest mashing procedure for which a single heated mashing tank suffices. The process results in a lighter colour and weaker taste of the beer.
Decotion – Decoction mashing comprises separation of part of the volume of the extracted malt – the mash - which is processed separately and boiled before returning to the extraction pan; this classical double-mash procedure is ideal for brewing light beers of the Pilsner type.
Adjunct making – or processing of starch substitutes, mostly used for economic reasons. The most frequently used adjuncts include non-malted barley, rice, maize etc.
Top fermentation – The history of beer brewing was exclusively connected with top fermentation yeast until the invention of cooling in the mid-19th century. This fermentation is performed at higher temperatures, the yeast is carried by CO2 bubbles to the top, and the prevailing beer types brewed in this way include "ale", "porter", "stout" etc.
Bottom fermentation - This fermentation is performed at low temperatures, the yeast sediment at the bottom and this method is mainly used for brewing Pilsner type beer.
Single-stage fermentation – Primary and secondary fermentation or beer maturation take place in a single tank, either a CKT or combi tank, which represents a modern method of beer brewing.
Double-stage fermentation – Primary fermentation takes place in open vessels or closed tanks in the brewery room called a fermenting cellar, while secondary fermentation or beer maturation takes place in closed vertical or horizontal tanks in the lager cellar. This is a classical brewing procedure. In a more modern variant this process may also take place in separate CKT tanks.
DHopped wort cooling and fermentation – is part of the brewing process consisting in cooling, aeration, primary fermentation and transport of the hopped wort from the brewhouse to the fermentation room.
Czech type lager – or Pilsner type lager is a light beer of original hopped wort concentration 11 – 12%, with a full taste, strong bitterness and good foam formation. This beer is usually made by the double-mash decoction procedure and is medium fermented.
Stout – a nearly black thick beer of ale type, often sweet, and mostly served non-cooled.
Ale – generally top fermented beer originating from England and Ireland, with different contents of the original extract and different colours. There are several types of ale (Pale Ale, Old Ale, Brown Ale, Cream Ale, Scotch Ale, Bitter, Mild etc.).
Weiss – or white beer, wheat beer, Weissbier, weisse, Weizenbier, contains more than 50% of wheat malt; its taste is slightly acid, less hopped, with a sharp fruit taste and high concentration of CO2.
Marzen – also Märzen Bier ("March beer") is a medium strong, brightly coloured lager with a strong malt taste and smell.
Bock – is a strong lager of various colours, mainly served at Christmas and Easter; Doppelbock is an extra strong lager mainly made in Bavaria.
Porter – a dark top fermented beer with a strong taste, high percentage of alcohol, strongly hopped, originating from London.